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(03/11/15) CEW Research Index (05/24/15) Brave - Brief DRAFT Outline of Selected Numbers, Law, Research (11/18/13) Brave - 2013 IPICD Annual Conference Presentation Power Point (10/03/14) TASER Risk Management Power Point (pptx file - 10 megabytes) (02/24/13) International TASER Risk Management Canadian and International Power Point (pptx - 4 megabytes) (09/07/10) ECD Forensic Index (08/19/08) ECD Research Index and Conclusions (10/15/13) Council of Canadian Academies and Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. Ottawa (ON): The Expert Panel on the Medical and Physiological Impacts of conducted Energy Weapons – Full Report. Canadian Police Research Centre, Canadian Safety and Security Program, Government of Canada. Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption. After reviewing the available evidence from this extensive case study, the author concludes that these conducted energy weapons are excluded as the cause of death in 182 of the 212 cases. When Snauer had reached the top of the fence, [Officer] Sether fired his [TASER ECD in probe mode]. 21-22 – “it seems that a strike from a solid baton can be at least equally forceful, if not more so, than a Taser . Additionally, the post-struggle conduct of the officers did not violate Michael’s rights. Officer notes that fleeing from an officer in a motor vehicle is a felony. Electronic Control Weapons in Georgia: Review and Recommendations, Adopted by the Georgia Association of Chiefs of Police Executive Board. (01/05) Town of Madison (WI) Police Department Policy Manual.National Institute of Justice (05/24/11) Alpert, G., Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less-Lethal Weapon. Electronic Control Device Exposure- A Review of Morbidity and Mortality. (09/02/08) TRS-D Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) - Detail (06/10/08) TRS-D Metabolic Acidosis - Detail (04/24/08) TRS-D Breathing Effect - Detail (04/25/08) TRS-D Rhabdomyolysis - Detail (06/10/08) TRS-D TASER Electronic Control Device (ECD) Delivered Energy Basic Analogy Examples (12/27/11) TASER X26 ECD Demonstration Outline (03/01/13) TASER Handheld Conducted Electronic Weapons Law Enforcement Warnings (10/15/09) TASER Training Bulletin 15.0 Medical Research Update and Revised Warnings (03/01/06) Reason for June 28, 2005, TASER Training Bulletin, regarding multiple TASER electronic control device exposures alleged effects on respiration and p H levels warnings (02/01/09) TASER M26 Electrical Characteristics (02/06/09) TASER M26 Specifications Sheet (02/01/09) TASER X26 Electrical Characteristics (02/06/09) TASER X26 Specifications Sheet (02/12) Atlas of Conducted Electrical Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis. In only two cases did the evidence tend to confirm the weapon was either a cause of death or a significant contributing factor. The Defendants-Appellants do not challenge this conclusion on appeal, arguing only that no constitutional violation occurred. When Snauer was hit by the probes, he became temporarily paralyzed, and plunged head-first to the other side unable to break his fall. Paramedics had been summoned before the struggle ended; Michael was breathing and able to talk with the officers after the struggle; when Michael fell over and said that he could not breathe, the officers propped Michael back up and there is no indication that he continued to complain; when the paramedics arrived Michael was breathing, communicated, and had a pulse; the officers assisted the paramedics with placing Michael on the gurney and Michael was only on his stomach a brief period of time during this process; when Michael was observed in distress by Escareno, he informed the paramedics who examined Michael and said he was okay; and Escareno and Burger helped with CPR and driving to the hospital. Plaintiff admits she did not comply with Officer's commands to get off of the telephone. (02/20/07) Civil Liability for Use of Tasers, stunguns, and other electronic control devices--Part I: 4th Amendment claims for excessive force, 2007 (3) AELE Mo. - (01/01/05) 022 Conducted Energy Weapon (PDF pages 84-88).Therefore, law enforcement need not refrain from deploying CED’s, provided the devices are used in accordance with accepted national guidelines such as the model policy of the International Association of Chiefs of Police." John Morgan, Deputy Director for Science & Technology, National Institute of Justice, May 20, 2008, Less Lethal and Critical Incident Technologies. (07/27/07) National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE) Resolution in Support of the Use of Electronic Control Devices and Less Lethal Devices by Law Enforcement Officers in Use of Force Situations, Adopted at the 31st Annual Conference, on July 27, 2007, in Ft. Page 23: There was general consensus that officers were using conducted energy devices (CEDs), primarily the TASER® [ECD], as the first option. Chief Medical Examiner of Summit County, Ohio a/k/a Dr. D., In the Court of Common Pleas, Summit County, Ohio, Case No. This case was upheld (as to TASER) by the Court of Appeals of Ohio, 9th Circuit in their March 31, 2009 decision (2009 WL 826416 (Ohio App. On August 26, 2009, the Ohio Supreme Court (case no. (TASER), joined by the City of Akron (OH), went to court (in OH) to have the court determine whether the use of TASER electronic control devices that were listed in 3 autopsy reports by 3 medical examiners (MEs) as contributors to death should be removed. TASER®, Position Paper of the Police Training Institute (IL). And the odds of a suspect being injured are reduced by more than 40 percent in CED agencies compared to non-CED agencies.” “All in all, we found consistently strong effects for CEDs in increasing the safety of officers and suspects,” said Dr. “Not only are CED sites associated with greater levels of safety compared to a matched group of non-CED sites, but also within CED agencies, in some cases the actual use of a CED by an officer is associated with a higher level of safety compared to incidents in which officers used other types of less lethal weapons, such as batons.” (04/09) TASER® Risk Avoidance Program (RAP), Michigan Municipal Risk Management Authority, 2003-2008 (Power Point).(10/08) Medical Panel Issues Interim Findings on Stun Gun Safety, by John Morgan, Ph. Page 37: Deployment of conducted energy devices (CEDs), primarily TASER [ECD], within many jurisdictions has affected the consideration and deployment of other tactical options and less-lethal weapons. "Plaintiffs have failed to produce any admissible evidence stating to a reasonable degree of medical certainty that the [TASER electronic control device] caused or contributed to Lomax’s death. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling on case of weapons confusion - officer drawing and discharging firearm when intended to draw TASER device. 2009-0868) denied the Medical Examiner's appeal of the appellate decision. The Court’s Order, dated May 2, 2008, finds for TASER and orders the MEs to change the cause of death determinations. (07/10) A Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes: Final Report to the National Institute of Justice, Michael R. (12/08) Green, Saul A., Jerome, Richard B., Independent Monitor's Final Report, City of Cincinnati (Ohio). The Monitoring Team also noted a significant decline in serious force-related incidents at this time.D., NIJ Journal, National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U. There was general consensus that officers were using TASER [ECD] as the first option. Plaintiffs therefore have not raised a genuine issue of material fact as to causation, and the Court will grant Defendant [TASER International’s] motion for summary judgment." The Court also ruled to exclude or limit Plaintiff's principle causation experts. Note, that in (OH) Mc Cullaugh 5 sheriff’s deputies have been criminally charged with various crimes, including one deputy on a murder charge. The Medical Examiner failed to present any evidence on the use and effect of TASER Devices.” “Even though the Medical Examiner's conclusions are entitled to much weight, and assuming a nonbinding presumption in favor of the Medical Examiner, the Plaintiffs have proven their claims for changing the reports of autopsy and death certificates on the three individuals by more than a preponderance of the evidence. We attribute much of this decrease to the department-wide deployment of the Taser.This was, perhaps, borne out of growing confidence in the system over time and a reduced likelihood of injury to both fficers and subjects (actual and perceived) - as well as the accompanying potential to reduce the likelihood of complaint and post- incident investigation. The Court found in part that an expert lacks any objective medical source linking the eyewitness testimony and his opinions as to what caused Lomax’s death. Here are some of the highlights from the Court’s Order: “There is simply no medical, scientific, or electrical evidence to support the conclusion that the TASER X26 had anything to do with the death of Dennis S. The multiple number of experts offered by the Plaintiffs in the area of sudden and unexpected death while law enforcement attempted to obtain custody, provided overwhelming credible medical and scientific evidence to support their positions.” “The experts provided evidence that Dennis S. Order Granting Defendant City of Fresno's Motion for Summary Judgment, See attached 41 page ORDER. Officer Herring’s the 1st, 2nd and 3rd use of the TASER device were not excessive force 2. Our review of use of force reporting and investigative files showed that the Taser replaced other types of force in the majority of incidents.
14, 2007, moments after he was shot with RCMP stun guns. The Court concluded, that viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to Plaintiff, Officer’s actions were unreasonable. Last 2 ECD discharges, a second officer had arrived, subject was not attempting to flee and was not an “immediate” threat,” and was not “capable” of following officers’ conflicting commands. has recently been published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), Alexandria, Virginia. Police Executive Research Forum, National Institute of Justice. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. This volume is written for cardiologists, emergency physicians, pathologists, law enforcement management, corrections personnel, and attorneys. FOURTH AMENDMENT EXCESSIVE-FORCE CLAIMS, FUTURE NONLETHAL WEAPONS, AND WHY REQUIRING AN INJURY CANNOT WITHSTAND A CONSTITUTIONAL OR PRACTICAL CHALLENGE, 60 U. - (08/02/06) Less-Lethal Force - General Order 710 (includes: SOP P1-171. Florida Highway Patrol - Policy Manual - - Use of Control 10.01. (06/24/05) Leon County (FL) Sheriff's Office Use of Force General Order. Due to the widespread usage of these devices and the widespread misconceptions surrounding their operation, this book will have significant utility. - (12/06/03) Use of Force Continuum - General Order 705. (11/03/07) Miami (FL) Police Department TASER Policy.He was trained that the Springfield Police Department's policy on [ECDs] stated that they "shall not be used in situations where the suspect may fall from a significant height." As noted above, plaintiff's quibble over the adjective "significant" is overstated. The only crime Officer suspected Plaintiff of committing was a violation of the open container statute, a minor crime, particularly since Plaintiff was the passenger in the car. Holding: Federal court in Seattle found that only the first 3 of 5 electronic control device (ECD) discharges were objectively reasonable. (04/96) IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, ELECTRONIC RESTRAINT DEVICE: THE TASER® Model Policy. Including Recommendations for Immediate Implementation. Commission for Public Complaints Against Canadian Mounted Police.Any reasonable police officer would know from the training received in this case that tasing a suspect who is cresting a six to seven foot high fence would likely result in serious injury. Although there were tumblers at Plaintiff’s feet, any object could be used as a weapon and there is no allegation that Plaintiff made any indication to reach for the tumblers, dispose of the tumblers, or use them as a weapon. Each ECD use lasted 5 seconds, and all 5 ECD uses took place within an 85-second time period. CIV 06-129-P-S) (unpublished) (gathering cases in which district courts held use of TASER ECD was not entitled to qualified immunity and holding that use of ECD on unarmed, intoxicated motorist, who did not physically threaten officers or attempt to flee and who was surrounded by three officers, was not entitled to qualified immunity. (04/10) Electronic Control Weapons (ECW), Concepts and Issues Paper, IACP NLEPC. Report of the Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security. (04/07/11) 2011 Electronic Control Weapon Guidelines, A joint project of Police Executive Research Forum and Community Oriented Policing Services, U. (08/03/10) Conducted Energy Devices Guidelines for Policy & Practice, Meeting Preparation Materials (for August 3, 2010 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, meeting), Police Executive Research Forum.